Urban agriculture has a broad perspective in terms of agriculture, and it has the potential to generate jobs and healthy food that will ultimately result in a better life.
The urban population has a diverse and large market for food, that is why urban agriculture practices are different from other regions.
All types of urban agriculture come into one of four different categories: Commercial, Community-Based, Public, and Institutional.
We will discuss the different types of urban agriculture falls under these categories:
1. Commercial Types of Urban Agriculture
More peoples are moving today to urban agriculture for its commercial point of view. Growing high-value products, less requirement of space are the things that distinguish it from traditional agriculture.
Some of the types of commercial urban agriculture are:
· Vertical Farming: Vertical farming is a type of agriculture in which the crops are grown vertically at different heights to maximize the utilization of area. This kind of growth can produce more yields in a surprisingly small space.
· Greenhouse: Greenhouse is a protected area made up of polythene or glass sheets to grow crops in a controlled environment. Greenhouse farming in India is getting popular because of its easy installation and cost-effectiveness.
· Rooftop Gardens: Rooftop garden is an excellent example of space utilization in the urban area. It is a growing area made on the roof of a commercial or a residential building, made solely with the purpose of fresh food products.
· Indoor Farming: Indoor farming uses the controlled environment agriculture technology to create an optimal environment for the growth of crops in a closed area, such as the basement of a building, inside a factory, or any other closed space. The crops which are grown in Indoor farming are pesticide or herbicide-free, as there is no requirement of using them inside.
· Aquaponics: Aquaponics is a more advanced technique of agriculture. Water and nutrients are used efficiently in this technique. Fishes and plants both are raised simultaneously in a connected system.
· Animal Husbandry: Animal Husbandry farms rear animals for food and the by-products obtained from them. To operate an animal husbandry farm in an urban area, one should be skilled in management and marketing both.
2. Community-based Types of Urban Agriculture
From mission-based enterprises operated by a non-profit organization to small scale residential projects and volunteer gardens, the range of community-based urban agriculture is big.
Community-based urban agriculture offers opportunity-rich projects for residents, communities, and cities. These projects can provide leadership and job training programs to assist people in gaining the necessary skills required for a job.
Some of the types of urban agriculture that falls under the community-based category discussed below:
· Community Gardens: A community garden can set up in the neighborhood, housing societies, vacant plots, and wherever you have the consent of the landowner. A community garden is a place where people gather to grow fresh vegetables and fruits together.
Community gardens are not only the place of fruit and vegetable growing, but it is also a place where people get to know each other and make new connections in their neighborhood.
These places also beautify the areas as most of the community gardens set up in empty spaces that have no usage before.
· Community Supported Agriculture: The word supported here refers to the financial support of the community; these types of community farms work to meet the local food demands, the members of these community farms pay a monthly or yearly subscription fee for their share of the grown produce.
Community-supported agriculture saves the amount of money spent on the shipping of food from distant farms.
3. Public Types of Urban Agriculture
This category includes all those types of urban agriculture which utilize public land for agriculture activities. The public lands such as parks, vacant spaces around official buildings, street sides used for agriculture in this type.
We will discuss some of the common public types of urban agriculture here:
· Forest Gardens: Forest Gardens are growing areas inside an urban forest, the forest has its micro-ecosystem, which makes it favorable to grow different crops inside it. Forest trees protect crops from strong winds and frost conditions, growing crops within an urban forest also encourage residents to protect the forest.
· Tactical Gardens: This type of urban agriculture involves the utilization of limited spaces without making huge expenses on set up. Places utilized for growing crops can be less used pathways, abandoned sites, car parking spaces, private properties, etc. The main thought behind this type of urban agriculture is to raise crops sustainably in the urban environment.
· Backyard Gardens: Backyards gardens are very prevalent in urban cities where people grow vegetables in their backyard or lawn. The vegetables are grown mostly consumed by family members.
4. Institutional Types of Urban Agriculture
Institutional types of urban agriculture include agriculture farms affiliated with an institution like a school or university; these types of farms provide education to the young generation or the students of that institution, about the agriculture sector.